Fonterra Food Services
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Glossary
A
Acid
A chemical with pH lower than 7. Strong acids have a pH of less than 3. Examples include vinegar, citric acid, hydrochloric acid.
Aerate
To add air to a solid or liquid. For example whipping egg whites adds air and makes them fluffy.
A la minute
This means "at the moment" and refers to something being prepared immediately before service. For example an "a la minute" steak would be cooked immediately before it was plated and served.
Al dente
Pasta cooked until tender while retaining a firm, chewy texture is said to be "al dente".
Alkali
This is a liquid that has a pH higher than 7. It can react with acids. Examples include caustic soda and ammonia. Alkalis will react with oils and fats to form soap.
Anglaise
A coating mixture made from eggs, oil, water and seasoning.
B
Bain-marie
A method of keeping food hot by surrounding the container with simmering water.
Bake
To cook by dry heat using a heated closed space such as an oven.
Ballotine
A boned and stuffed leg of poultry or feathered game.
Baste
To brush liquids such as fat, meat drippings, marinade, water or juices over meat during roasting to add flavour and to prevent it from drying out.
Baton
A precision cut used on vegetables.
Blanch
To immerse fruit or vegetable in boiling water for a minute or so, then remove and place in a bowl of ice water. Often used before freezing fruits or vegetables. You can also blanch a fruit or vegetable such as tomatoes or peaches to remove its skin.
Bouquet garni
A variety of fresh herbs bound together for flavouring.
Braise
To tenderise meat by browning in oil before roasting or baking.
Brasier
A pan used for braising, usually round, with a fitted lid and two handles.
Bread
To coat with bread crumbs, cracker crumbs or other crumb mixture before cooking.
Broil
To cook meat or other food under the heat source. This seals in flavour.
Brunoise
A fine precision cut usually for vegetables, typically used as a garnish. It is strictly a 3mm dice.
Brush
To brush the top of food with melted butter or egg white using a pastry brush.
C
Caramelise
To brown by heating.
Cartouche
A folded, circular piece of paper used to cover stored stocks and sauces.
Chiffonnade
A cut used to finely slice leafy vegetables, generally as a garnish.
Chinoise
A conical strainer.
Clarify
To make clear.
Coagulate
Firming or clumping of proteins after heating.
Court Bouillon
Water containing herbs and seasonings, typically used for cooking fish.
Cream
To mix butter, shortening or margarine with sugar until smooth and creamy.
Curdle
Food is curdled when it separates into a liquid containing small solid particles (caused by overcooking).
Cut in
To blend or cream butter or shortening into a flour mixture.
D
Dash
To add a dash of something in cooking is less than 1/16 teaspoon. Since there is no 1/16 teaspoon you use a pinch amount.
Deglaze
To loosen brown particles from the bottom of a pan by adding wine, broth or other liquid.
Derivative sauce
A sauce made from another sauce.
Dredge
To lightly coat food with flour, breadcrumbs or cracker crumbs.
Drizzle
To pour a liquid over food in a slow, light trickle.
Dust
To sprinkle food with flour, spices or sugar.
E
Egg wash
Milk or water combined with beaten eggs used to coat baked items for shine/sheen.
Emulsion
Two unmixable liquids in a uniform mixture.
En-papillote
A dish baked in a foil wrapper.
F
Fillet
A boneless cut of meat, fish or poultry.
Flake
To break food apart with a fork, usually applied to fish.
Flambé
To light a sauce or liquid with flames.
Flute
To press edges of a pie crust together in a decorative way.
Fricassee
A white stew in which the meat, fish or poultry is cooked in the sauce.
G
Garnish
A decorative accompaniment to a particular dish. The garnish should always be edible, appropriate and complementary to the dish it accompanies. It should not dominate and may be part of the dish itself.
Gel
A thickened jelly-like liquid.
Gelatin
Used to make jelly, gelatin is a clear substance made from boiling animal bones.
Gelatinisation
The process through which starch granules absorb water and swell.
Generic stock
Liquid created from simmering meat, poultry, vegetables and/or seafood with water for extraction of flavour. Used as a base for soup and sauces.
Glaze
A stock reduced to a thickness where it coats the back of a spoon.
Gratinate
To brown under a grill.
Grill
To cook by a radiant heat source from below the food.
Gueridon
Gueridon is the preparation of foodstuffs at or beside the diner's table. This may include:
the preparation of raw food like fruit
carving
hot food being cooked.
This is a specialized style of service more often associated with fine dining.
H
Hull
To remove leaves from fruits such as strawberries.
I
Insoluble
Substances which are impossible to dissolve/mix.
J
Jardiniere
A garnish of fresh vegetables. It can include carrots, turnips, green beans etc.
Julienne
A fine precision cut usually applied to vegetables. Julienne is defined as 3mm x 3mm x 40mm but may also be thinner and longer depending on the effect required. This cut is often used for garnishes.
Jus
Meat gravy. Unthickened juice from a roast.
L
Leavening
The introduction of gases into a baked product for volume, shape and texture.
Lipids
Substances that dissolve in alcohol but not in water. Includes fats/oils and waxes.
M
Marble
To swirl food together
Marinade
A liquid used for soaking meat that adds flavour, tenderises and preserves.
Mirepoix
To rough cut vegetables, usually carrot, celery and onion (may include leeks) in equal proportions. The size of the cut is dependant on the use.
Mise en place
A French term that means to put in place. It refers to everything that must be made ready before service.
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet. This is a document that details how to safely use chemicals such as cleaning products, providing relevant warnings and safety notices.
Monté au beurre
To add butter to a sauce to enrich and thicken it.
Muslin-lined chinoise
A strainer that uses muslin (a cotton fabric).
N
Nappé
To coat a food with a layer of sauce.
Neutral
A substance with a pH of 7, midway between an acid and alkali, is said to be neutral. Pure water is an example.
P
Pan broil
To cook food on its own in a skillet over high heat, removing the fat from the pan as it cooks off the meat.
Parchment
Heat-resistant paper used in cooking.
Pare
To peel or trim food, usually vegetables.
pH
pH is measured on a scale of 1 to 14. The closer you get to 1, the more acidic something is. The closer you get to 14, the more alkaline something is. Think of it like this: an acid is the opposite of an alkali. In the middle, at 7, is neutral. Pure water is neutral. Lemon juice is an example of an acid. Baking soda dissolved in water makes an alkali.
Poach
To simmer certain foods in a liquid. For example, eggs can be poached in simmering water.
Porous
A substance which allows water and air to pass through is said to be porous. For example, paper.
Pulses
The seeds of certain plants that can be eaten. For example, peas, beans and lentils.
Puree
To cook a fruit or vegetable, then pass it through a sieve.
Q
Quenelles
Pureed seafood, meat or poultry mixed with egg, rolled into a ball and poached.
R
Reduce
To thicken a stock, soup or sauce by boiling off excess liquid.
Roast
To cook by radiated and convected heat. Roasting is a dry method of cooking and food must be basted to keep the surface moist.
Roux
A type of thickener made from mixing cooking flour and oil. This can be used to thicken certain sauces.
S
Salamander
A grill which provides heat from beside or above food, used to cook and brown foods.
Saucier
The Chef Saucier is in charge of making stocks and sauces in a large kitchen brigade. The sauce section is also responsible for the production and service of dishes which are finished with or cooked in sauces.
Sauté
To cook food in hot oil in a pan.
Sauteuse
A Sauteuse is a frying pan with deep vertical sides and a lid. It is particularly suited to sauté dishes in which delicate meat is first browned and then finished in the Sauteuse with a sauce.
Seasoning
The addition of salt, herbs and spices to enhance the flavour of a dish. The most commonly used seasoning combination is salt and pepper.
Shallow fry
To cook in shallow hot oil.
Skim
To remove impurities or fat from the surface of a liquid using a ladle.
Sous chef
The second in charge of a kitchen, with total control in the absence of the chef. They are often in charge of the day-to-day and hands-on running of a kitchen.
Spatchcock
A small chicken with the backbone removed, flattened and trussed for grilling.
Spider
A wire basket with long handle for lifting food items out of hot liquids.
Stock pot
A large pot with a tap or spigot at the base used for simmering stocks.
T
Temper
To lightly cook at no more than 65°C, typically applied to egg yolks.
Trellis
A criss-cross decorative pattern made on the surface of foodstuffs using very hot iron bars.
Truss
To tie up to improve shape and ensure even cooking.
Turning
To shape vegetables and sometimes fruit into regular "barrel" or "olive" shapes using a small hook-billed knife.
U
UHT
Ultra High Temperature treatment, a sterilising process whereby liquid foods are heated to over 140°C to kill all bacterial spores, thereby extending ambient temperature shelf life.
Y
Yield
The total amount or number of portions that can be produced correctly following a standard recipe.
Z
Zest
The thinly sliced, chiselled or grated outer rind of citrus fruits, usually orange and lemon.
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